Andjelkovic M1, Vukasinovic-Vesic M1, Dikic N1,2, Radivojevic N1, Curcic Dj1, Antic T1, Barlic I1, Turner R2, Stokes R2, Gunter H.2
Sports Medicine Association of Serbia1, FIBA Europe2
Hydration is the condition of having adequate fluid in the body tissues. Field research suggests that approximately 50% of individual and team athletes are hypohydrated. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the hydration status of male basketball players.
Ninety-six basketball players of eight national teams were assessed during the U20 European Championship Men 2011 - Division B held in Sarajevo in July 2011. In order to estimate hydration we collected three morning urines of each player on consecutive days and once after the game, then we measured body mass of all players before and after one game, the quantity of consumed fluid and urine output during the game, as well as temperature and humidity in the sports hall. Hydration assessments were evaluated by urine specific gravity (Usg), urine color (Ucol), urine osmolality (Uosmol), sweats rate (SR), fluid intake (FI) and urine output (UO).
Players age was 19±0.79 years. After the game body mass loss was 0.9±0.7 kg, percentage of dehydration 0.99±0.7%, total fluid intake 1868±816 ml (range 435 - 3987) and sweat rate 2.7±0.9 L/h (range 1.16 - 5.54). Urine output during the game was 55±61 ml. Mean morning Usg was 1024±6 and after the game 1026±6, mean morning urine color was 5.67±1.12 and after the game 5.97±1.37, mean morning urine osmolality was 883±229 osmol/L and after the game 852±228 osmol/L. Ambient temperature was 30±2°C and humidity 55±4% on average. We found statistically significant correlation between sweat rate with Usg (p<0.05), Uosmol (p<0.01), body mass loss (p<0.01), FI (p<0.01), BSA (p<0.01) and percentage of dehydration (p<0.01).
Most athletes did not intake enough fluids to match sweat losses during the game and they were significantly dehydrated which was proven by measuring Usg and Uosmol, as well as by body mass loss and percentage of dehydration. Even more players begin the day in a hypohydrated state which is indicated by morning Usg, Uosmol, Ucol. Finaly we might conclude that players were chronically dehydrated.
The results of this study support idea that trainers and team doctors should be educated to help athletes to be properly hydrated. It seems that only a proactive role and awareness of all participants in basketball could contribute to a better hydration and sports performance. Players should receive encouragement and educational information about suitable hydration strategies.
Maughan R.J., Shirreffs S.M. Development of hydration strategies to optimize performance for athletes in high-intensity sports and in sports with repeated intense efforts. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010.